The homeworld of the human species and model for the Class-M designator.
The third planet from the sun in the Sol system in Sector 001, Earth became one of the founders of the United Federation of Planets after the Romulan War in 2161 and today serves as its de facto capital. Starfleet Command, Starfleet Academy, and the Federation Council are all based in San Francisco, while the UFP President's office is in Paris. It features orbital Starfleet spacedocks, habitats, and a satellite network including Federation communications.
Earth enjoys one of the most advanced, peaceful, and materially pleasant cultures of any known. There has been no case of terrorist bombing or a State of Emergency, other than the Borg attack of 2366-67, reported in over a century prior to the Antwerp Conference incident and the Changeling scare of 2372. It appears to have no self-government in the Federation, fully subjecting itself to the multi-world direction of the Federation Council and its president, who is authorized to enact a state of emergency.
Its worldwide power-relay system is run by the Division of Planetary Operations to operate sensors, transporters and surface-based defense installations. Starfleet has its own emergency back-up system.
If Curzon's Hopi Indian friend is any indication, not all tribes or their individuals resisted acculturation and sought out the founding of an off-world colony such as Dorvan V or Chakotay's homeworld.