A device first postulated by Isaac Asimov in the twentieth century that would use positron decay as the basis of an advanced computer neural system. Thought to be impossible to construct, the twenty-fourth century scientist Dr. Noonien Soong proved the devices could be practical by using them in his androids Lore and Data.

In 2366, Lieutenant Commander Data used new submicron matrix transfer techniques to create a new positronic brain that he used to construct his android daughter Lal, but the new design eventually malfunctioned and failed.