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Captain's Log 21/12/12:

EDisConstant

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POSTS: 43

Report this Feb. 13 2014, 3:19 am

 


SECTION 11. There is no "charge":


11.1. The proton and electron, being concentrations of energy, are Potential Energy Wells and have Potential Energy gradients surrounding them. Hence, if a proton and an electron are near each other, they will move towards each other along the potential energy gradient. (This will give the appearance of a "force of attraction".)


11.2. As the proton and electron move towards each other, their total energy will remain constant but will be transferred between their energies of movement - Kinetic Energy (KE) and their energies of position - Potential Energy (PE), similar to the orbital motion of two celestial bodies, as described above.


11.3. If particles really had "charge", then electrons could not co-exist in close proximity to other electrons (as in the atomic electron cloud), nor could protons co-exist in close proximity in an atomic nucleus.

EDisConstant

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 43

Report this Feb. 13 2014, 3:47 am

 


SECTION 12: Applying a Potential Energy gradient:


12.1. When a Potential Energy gradient (in the form of a battery) is connected to a conductor, the loosely-bound electrons in the conductor will seek to move towards positions of lower Potential Energy, creating an electrical current.


12.2. Electricity is the electron flow from a point of electron surplus to a point of electron depletion, or to a position of lower Potential Energy.


12.3. Similarly, the "magnetic field line" is the trajectory of free electrons, or the alignment of trapped electrons, towards an area of electron depletion, so as to create a minimum energy configuration.


12.4. Electrons are also spinning gyroscopes.  "Magnetically" aligned electrons will attempt to move (gyroscopically) at right-angles when a Potential Energy gradient is applied. (Earth scientists desribe this movement with a mysterious right-hand rule in their motor and generator theory.)


12.5. Similarly, free protons will move towards positions of proton depletion and minimum energy.


12.6. As a general rule, all wave-particles, wherever they are, will move towards positions of minimum total energy.

EDisConstant

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 43

Report this Feb. 22 2014, 5:17 am

 


SECTION 13. Atomic Structure:


13.1. The depth of the Potential Energy Well of an atomic nucleus is directly proportional to the number of protons it contains.


13.2. Each element is defined by the number of protons it contains. The combination wave-particles (which Earth scientists call Neutrons) have a secondary effect, and only contribute to the minor variations in the properties of isotopes.


13.3. The diameter of an atom is primarily dependent on the number of electrons in the atomic Potential Energy Well.


13.4. The diameter of an atom is also dependent on the excitation level (temperature) of the electrons in the atomic Potential Energy Well.  As the temperature increases, so the atomic diameter increases.


 

EDisConstant

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 43

Report this Feb. 27 2014, 5:34 am

 


SECTION 14: Excitation:


14.1. Within the atom, wave-particles can be excited to levels of higher energy (Kinetic, Potential or both) by the addition of Kinetic Energy in the form of heat-collision energy, or by the application of a force in a Potential Energy field.


14.2. An increase in energy will increase the velocity of the wave-particle which will increase the radius of its orbit. Hence, for protons, the diameter of the nucleus will increase and, for electrons, the diameter of the atom will increase.


14.3. With further excitation, the Kinetic Energy and orbital radius of the electrons will increase and, eventually, the fastest moving electron will escape the Potential Well.  In your position in your universe, this occurs at 13.6 eV in the Hydrogen atom.


 


(Note: The Vulcan Science Academy has witheld information here which would explain Fusion Power, as it would contravene the Prime Directive of non-interference in other civilisations.)


14.4. Conversely, as energy is taken away (by "cooling" collisions) from the orbiting electrons, the radius of the orbit decreases, and the "size" of the atom decreases, reaching a minimum at Absolute Zero temperature.

EDisConstant

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 43

Report this Mar. 06 2014, 6:28 am

 


 


SECTION 15: Molecular Structure:


15.1. Molecular characteristics are determined by the depth of the Potential Energy wells of the constituent atoms and the orbital dimensions of the surrounding electrons.


15.2. Atoms will form into molecular structures with lattices of minimum total energy. If the energy level (temperature) is increased, so the electron orbit dimensions incease, and the structure will change state from solid to liquid, to gas, to plasma etc.


15.3. Energetic electrons will tend to "bubble" out of the Potential Energy wells of the atoms. With an applied Potential Energy field, they will attempt to move through the lattice. Their movement will be impeded by collisions with other electrons, with which they will share their Kinetic Energy. This "resistance" will cause "heating" of the material.


15.4. If the temperature of the material is lowered, the orbital radius of the bound electrons decreases and the mean free path between the atoms increases. Hence the electrons have a clearer pathway through the lattice and can flow more freely, until a condition of superconductivity occurs. Similarly, low-temperature atoms in a lattice structure can exhibit low-resistance movement known as super-fluidity.

EDisConstant

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 43

Report this Mar. 08 2014, 4:14 am

 


SECTION 16: Black Holes and Supernovae:


16.1. A Black Hole is normally in a steady state with zero energy emissions. If wave-particles fall into the Potential Energy well of the Black Hole and collide with other wave-particles, then energy will normally be released. The energy may be emitted as photons of various wavelengths, and all will be red-shifted as they emerge from the Potential Energy well.


16.2. Similarly, collapsing stars can create supernovae or hypernovae with immense releases of energy. The energy is usually in the form of Gamma Ray Bursts which will be lethal to any lifeforms in their path.


16.3. There are frequent Gamma Ray Bursts in your universe, but each has a narrow radiation beam, so the chances of the Earth being hit are relatively small. However, one Gamma Ray Burst could terminate all life on Earth. so it is logical for you to develop mechanisms for the preservation of your species.


16.4. The gradual concentration of energy in you universe, and the eventual collision of two or more large concentrations of energy, will eventually cause the next mini-big bang in your universe.


 

EDisConstant

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 43

Report this Mar. 08 2014, 4:26 am

ANNEX A - Derivation of Equation: "ED is Constant"


With acknowledgements to the work of Max Planck, Louis de Broglie et al.


The Planck constant (h), is the proportionality constant between the energy (E) of a photon and the frequency of its associated electromagnetic wave (f):


E = hf


And since frequency (f) equals the speed of light (c) divided by wavelength, then substituting for (f) we have:


E = hc/λ or E λ = hc     (Equation 1)


Now consider that this "energy wave" is not travelling as a spherical wave-front (as we believe a typical photon travels). Instead, imagine that the "energy wave" is stationary (a standing wave) so that it oscillates in its spherical volume at its fundamental frequency. (In wave terms, it reverses direction each half-cycle, so that it appears to make one complete "revolution" per wavelength.) This standing wave is the essence of a "wave-particle".


Then the effective diameter (D) of the "wave-particle" will be half the wavelength:


λ = 2 D Substituting for λ in Equation 1 above:


E.D = hc/2          (Equation 2)


Hence:


E.D = Constant     (Equation 3)


===============


For an ELECTRON:


Electron Rest Energy = 511 keV


Planck's constant h (in J/s) = 6.626 x 10^-34


The speed of light c (in m/s) = 3.00 x 10^8


Energy Conversion factor: 1 keV = 1.60210 x 10^-16 Joules


The Electron diameter D (in metres) will be, from Equation 2 above:


D = hc/2E = 6.626 x 10^-34 x (3 x 10^8) / (2 x 511 x 1.60210 x 10^-16)


So, the diameter of the Electron at rest is: 1.2 x 10^-12 metres.


(This correlates with the accepted size of the atom at over 60 x 10^-12 m).


And the "natural frequency" of the Electron at rest is: 0.8 x 10^20 Hz.


==============================


For a PROTON:


The Proton rest energy is = 938 MeV


So, the diameter of the Proton at rest is: 0.66 x 10^-15 metres.


(This correlates with the accepted size of the nucleus at over 2 x 10^-15 m)


And the "natural frequency" of the Proton at rest is: 1.5 x 10^23 Hz.


===============================


For a NEUTRINO:


The Neutrino rest energy is typically = 1.0 eV


So, the diameter of the Neutrino at rest is about: 0.6 x 10^-6 metres.


And the "natural frequency" of the Neutrino is: 0.4 x 10^14 Hz.


=================================


For other Wave-particles:


The lowest energy wave-particles we might measure are those at the frequency of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). These wave-particles would have a diameter of over 1 mm and are numerous enough to overlap as they pass our detectors and appear as a continuous stream.


(End of Annex A)


================================

EDisConstant

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 43

Report this Mar. 08 2014, 4:37 am

 


ANNEX B - Energy Density:


Since "Energy x Diameter = Constant", then for a wave-particle of double energy, its diameter/radius will be halved, and its volume will be one eighth.


Hence its "energy density" will be sixteen times greater.


The general formula is:  Energy Density is to the fourth power of Energy.


The "apparent force of attraction" between particles will appear to increase with the fourth power of the energy increase.


Hence a proton will have an energy density of (1836)^4 which is about 10^12 times greater than an electron.


This factor will apply to the comparative dimensions of the potential wells for the proton and the electron.


As a result, a small, dense proton can pass straight through a large, "fluffy" electron without any interaction.


Normally, there will only be an interaction for energy densities within one or two orders of magnitude.


Note: The energy density of the electron is about (0.5 x 10^6)^4 which is almost 10^27 times greater than the neutrino.


(End of Annex B)


=============================


End of Vulcan Science Academy Treatise.  


(Copyright © 2012-2014 EDisConstant)


=============================

alfamav

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 54

Report this Mar. 09 2014, 5:59 am

 


Awesome!


Out of this world, Mr Spock.


LL&P.


Spockism 1: "In this universe, there is no Mass, Weight, Charge or Gravity: There is only Energy." Spockism 2: "All motion is ORBITAL and GYROSCOPIC." Spockism 3: For Photons: "Energy x Wavelength is constant." For Wave-Particles: "Energy x Diameter is constant."

Palomar1932

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 46

Report this Mar. 13 2014, 7:06 am

Thank you Mr Spock. Thank you very much!


Will keep on reading this treatise everyday, until I understand it!


Are you teasing us with the Fusion Energy comment, or can you give us some more clues?


LL&P

Palomar1932

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 46

Report this Mar. 18 2014, 10:17 am

Mr Spock,


Our scientists have just discovered new evidence of polarisation of light from the early universe.


They conclude that this is proof of a big bang and gravity waves.


What is your view?


 

EDisConstant

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 43

Report this Mar. 23 2014, 10:13 pm

Ensign:  


Your scientists continue to make new discoveries about your universe, and the new facts help them to discard some previously acceptable theories.  


However, this does not mean that their remaining theories are necessarily correct.


 


 


SPOCKISM:  Proving a theory, absolutely, is impossible.  Disproving a theory requires only one new fact.  


 


OCCAM'S RAZOR:  Amongst competing hypotheses, the simplest hypothesis with the fewest assumptions should be selected. 


 


As emphasised before, this new information on the polarisation of light may be interesting, but it will do nothing to secure the survival of your species.


Perhaps you should be concentrating your research funding on other things - DNA research and planetary colonisation.


There are some interesting comments on BICEP2 on Alexander Unzicker's blog:  http://blog.alexander-unzicker.com/   


LL&P.

Palomar1932

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 46

Report this Mar. 25 2014, 8:25 pm

This guy Alexander Unzicker makes a lot of sense.


I've not yet read his book "The Higgs Fake" as Barnes & Noble doesn't stock it.


Will order it on Amazon.


LL&P.

alfamav

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 54

Report this Mar. 27 2014, 11:43 am

Mr Spock:


We are waiting for this dust cloud to be swallowed by the black hole, which may happen anytime soon.


Can you give us your analysis of what we will see?


Have you already seen it from a place closer to the event?


LL&P.


http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/massive-gas-cloud-collide-black-hole-get-watch-live/#.UzRsBT0N_W0.email


Spockism 1: "In this universe, there is no Mass, Weight, Charge or Gravity: There is only Energy." Spockism 2: "All motion is ORBITAL and GYROSCOPIC." Spockism 3: For Photons: "Energy x Wavelength is constant." For Wave-Particles: "Energy x Diameter is constant."

EDisConstant

GROUP: Members

POSTS: 43

Report this Mar. 30 2014, 10:13 pm





Ensign:

Back to the classroom for you!  You should be aware there is a maximum limit for the speed of information transmission - the speed of light.

 Although we have Vulcan outposts in various areas of your universe, if they receive the event information before you, and relay that information to you immediately, their transmissions of the event to Earth cannot reach you any quicker than the direct event observations.   

A black hole is black because it is dormant and inactive.  However, if wave-particles from the dust cloud collide with the core of the black hole, some will be converted into photons.

These photons will be red-shifted as they leave the Potential Energy well of the black hole.

 The spectrum of the emissions will give information on the range of wave-particles in the dust cloud, and the red-shift will indicate the depth of the Potential Energy well of the black hole.  

If the cloud contains mainly hydrogen, as hypothesised, then photon emissions will mainly be red-shifted from 511 keV for electrons, and 931 MeV from protons.

We can also expect to see some emissions from neutrinos - about 1 eV.

 Your scientists may be fortunate to see the annihilation of wave-particles at other energies.

These are the wave-particles which cannot normally be detected by Earth sensors. Your scientists call them "dark matter", and they constitute the large majority of wave-particles in your universe.  

These forthcoming observations may help your scientists disprove many of their theories.   

 You can claim your Nobel prize for being the first to predict and explain these phenomena.   

Only those particles on a direct collision course with the black hole will be affected.  All others will orbit the black hole in elliptical orbits dependent on their initial orbital parameters.

There is no atmosphere surrounding the black hole to slow and trap any nearby orbiting particles, so the prediction for "spiralling" into the black hole is unlikely. 

LL&P.




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